The purpose of this segment is to describe the process of urination, factors that affect urination, and to learn nursing diagnosis and PSW interventions to assist clients with altered urinary elimination. After discussion on the segment the student will be able to identify factors that affect urination, discuss the eight common alterations in urinary elimination, and list common urinary problems. This segment will help students to learn PSW/nursing assessment of urinary function, including subjective and objective data, and to outline the normal and abnormal characteristics and constituents of urine. Students will learn the process to collect urine specimens, and the importance of conducting selected tests, and develop an understanding of nursing diagnoses. This segment also identified strategies to prevent urinary tract infection, and interventions for clients with retention catheters or urinary diversions.