Overview - 2019/2020
Stem cells, xenobiotics, and molecular biology are among the most in-demand fields of scientific study today. With Fanshawe's honours bachelor degree in Biotechnology, you'll have eight semesters of academic study and at least four months of co-op experience to prepare you for work in these exciting areas.
As a biotech student, you'll develop skills in experimental design, statistical data analysis, bioinformatics and handling microbial, plant, and animal material for genetic analysis. Throughout the program there will be a strong focus on how biotechnology relates to regulatory affairs, quality assurance, bioethics, and biohazard management. You'll explore:
- Plant and animal tissue culture;
- Applied biotechnology methods;
- DNA, RNA, protein and lipid purification and analysis;
- Instrumental chemistry;
- Economic, ethical and environmental issues.
During your four-month co-op, you'll hone your research skills and develop the interpersonal and communication expertise necessary for life beyond Fanshawe. As a graduate, your career opportunities will be numerous and diverse. You may choose to join this high-growth sector with a career in medical or agricultural research, pharmaceuticals, bioremediation, the fermentation industry, or developing a biotechnology business opportunity.
Features and benefits:
- With honours - Fanshawe's biotechnology degree is delivered as a honours degree. This means you complete four years of study and graduate with a major in a particular discipline (in our case, Biotechnology). This is compared to general degrees, offered over three years and include more generalized study of a broadly defined area;
- Earn while you learn - a four month paid co-op placement allows students to make employer contacts, gain work experience and apply their knowledge in a real world biotechnology environment. Learn more about co-op;
- Beyond Fanshawe - graduates of the biotech program may pursue post-graduate certificates or a variety of Master's level programs. Learn more about pathways.
In the news
- "Healing honey having sweet success in research", Business London, March 2018, page 38.
I chose the Biotechnology degree because it provides me with sufficient knowledge in the field of science and technology while allowing me to acquire excellent laboratory skills. I'm confident this program will enable me to acquire a challenging position in the field of science and research.
BIO2 program progression:
Year Fall Winter Summer Year #1 Start Level 1 Class Level 2 Off Year #2 Class Level 3 Class Level 4 Co-op/Off Year #3 Class Level 5 Class Level 6 Co-op/Off Year #4 Class Level 7 Class Level 8 /End N/A
Phone: 519-452-4430 x4706
Kelsey Currie, B.Sc, B.Ad.Ed
Phone: 519-452-4430 x4718
Admission Requirements - 2019/2020OSSD with courses from the University (U) or University/College (M) stream WITH:
- Mathematics ONE OF:
- Grade 12 Advanced Functions (U)
- Grade 12 Calculus and Vectors (U)
- Grade 12 Biology (U)
- Grade 12 Chemistry (U)
- Plus three additional Grade 12 University (U) or University/College (M) courses
- Final minimum average of 65.0% based on the highest six Grade 12 University (U) or University/College (M) courses
Mature Applicant with standing in the required courses stated above
Post-Secondary Standing* (if applicable)
English Language Requirements
Applicants whose first language is not English will be required to demonstrate proficiency in English by one of the following methods:
- A Grade 12 College Stream or University Stream English credit from an Ontario Secondary School, or equivalent, depending on the program's Admission Requirements
- Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) test with a minimum score of 570 for the paper-based test (PBT), or 88 for the Internet-based test (iBT), with test results within the last two years
- International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Academic test with an overall score of 7.0 with no score less than 6.5 in reading and listening and a score of 7.0 in writing and speaking, with test results within the last two years
- Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) test with an overall score of 70, with test results within the last two years
- Pearson Test of English Academic (PTE) with a minimum score of 65, with test results within the last two years
- A Cambridge English Test (FCE/CAE/CPE) with an overall score on the Cambridge English Scale of 185 with no score less than 176 in reading and listening and 185 in writing and speaking, with test results within the last two years
- An English Language Evaluation (ELE) at Fanshawe College with a minimum score of 75% in all sections of the test, with test results within the last two years
- Fanshawe College ESL4/GAP5 students: Minimum grade of 80% in ESL4/GAP5 Level 9 or 75% in ESL4/GAP5 Level 10
Recommended Academic Preparation
- Grade 12 Physics (U)
- Grade 12 English (U)
- Applicants applying for individual course credits from Canadian universities must provide a detailed course content of theory and laboratory exercises (if appropriate).
- International applicants may apply for course credit achieved at the post-secondary level. Detailed course content of theory and laboratory exercises from the international institution must be included with a transcript as part of the request (official documents provided to the Office of the Registrar in a sealed envelope). If translation of the documents into English is necessary this must be performed by a recognized service.
- Based on the guidelines established by the Postsecondary Quality Assessment Board for Honours Degree Programs, credits for advanced standing cannot exceed 50% of the program's total.
Applicant Selection CriteriaWhere the number of eligible applicants exceeds the available spaces in the program, the Applicant Selection Criteria will be:
- Preference for Permanent Residents of Ontario
- Receipt of Application by February 1st (After this date, Fanshawe College will consider applicants on a first-come, first-served basis until the program is full)
- Achievement in the Admission Requirements
- Achievement in Post-Secondary Studies* (if applicable)
- *Applicants currently enrolled in a university or who have previously attended university or other post-secondary institutions and are applying to transfer into the Honours Bachelor of Applied Technology - Biotechnology program are considered on the basis of their post-secondary standing. Specifically, applicants currently enrolled in a university or who have previously attended university must maintain a minimum average of 65.0% on the last ten full credit or full credit equivalent courses in order to be considered for admission. Applicants with less than ten full credit courses must maintain a minimum average of 65.0% on all courses in order to be considered for admission. Applicants applying from a community college must have successfully completed a diploma program with an overall GPA of 2.5 in their program. In addition, all students applying from university or college must have completed the pre-requisite courses in Mathematics, Biology and Chemistry as stated in the Admission Requirements.
Honours Bachelor of Applied Technology - Biotechnology-2019/2020
CHEM-7002 Chemistry 1 4 This course covers the basic concepts of matter, quantitative interpretation of chemical reactions, behaviour of gases, composition of atoms and their electron configurations, and chemical bonding. Laboratories provide opportunities to develop techniques while working on experiments related to theory. BIOL-7002 Molecular Biology 3 This course is an introduction to the basic biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The cellular structure/function relationship at the macromolecular and genetic levels, DNA structure, chemistry, replication, gene expression and genetic changes are discussed. The laboratories and tutorials compliment the lectures by introducing basic laboratory techniques. Students develop skills in preparation, extraction and separation of cellular components, gel electrophoresis and serial dilutions. MATH-7002 Mathematics 1 3 This course provides a review of basic algebra and trigonometry concepts followed by an introduction to calculus of one variable. This course includes the concepts of limits and continuity, rules for finding the derivatives and integrals of polynomial functions, and applications of these concepts taken largely from the life sciences.
CHEM-7003 Chemistry 2 4 This course covers properties of liquids and solids with an emphasis on intermolecular force and energy changes encountered when matter changes from one state to another or when solutions are prepared, an introduction to chemical kinetics and chemical equilibria, with an emphasis on acid-base and solubility equilibria, and electrochemical principles. Laboratories provide opportunities to develop techniques while working on experiments related to theory. PHYS-7001 Physics 1 3.5 This is an introductory course to prepare the student for more advanced Physics in the following semesters. The course covers the basic laws of kinematics and dynamics. The material is algebra based with special emphasis on the solution of numerical problems. A total of six laboratory exercises compliment the lecture material. BIOL-7003 Plant & Animal Anatomy & Physiology 4 This course studies plant and animal anatomy and physiology. The role of specific cell type in plants and animals will be studied in the context of function. Plant embryogenesis, development and growth and the influence of plant hormones on these processes will be examined. Animal organ systems, the cell types which constitute various systems and how these cell types work together in a functioning organ will be studied. Animal reproduction and development of organ systems will be studied. The effects of osmotic conditions, the role of junctional complexes, and cell-cell communication in different cell types and how these affect the functioning of tissues as a whole will be examined. COMP-7002 Computers & Applications 2 This course uses MS Excel software to introduce spread sheets for data analysis and to solve statistical problems. Presenting data in a logical format for analysis will be emphasized. Various arithmetic functions, conditional statements and graphic analysis will be applied in addition to matrix manipulations and financial functions. An introduction to databases as well as an initiation to GenBank (National Center for Biotechnology Information) are also included.
CHEM-7004 Analytical Chemistry 1 2.5 This course enables students to carry out stoichiometric calculations involving acid-base equilibria, change of oxidation state (redox) reactions and electrochemical processes, and precipitation and complex ion formation reactions. Students apply that knowledge in the preparation and standardization of analytical reagents and experiments involving quantitative determination of analytes based on the above reactions and processes. PHYS-7005 Physics 2 3.5 This course covers basic concept of wave motion, sound, electricity and magnetism, radiation, and atomic spectroscopy, as well as applications to instrumentation the student may encounter in the future. Six laboratory experiments compliment the lecture material. BIOL-7001 Microbiology 1 2.5 This course is an introduction to microbiology. The classification, structure, nutritional requirements, aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, primary and secondary metabolites and diversity of microorganisms are examined. The use of single cells as factories to generate an industrial or clinical product and the environmental implications of their use will be studied. The laboratory components introduce students to aseptic techniques, culturing and microorganism classification in an environment that cultivates an awareness of their potential pathogenic capabilities and biohazard classification. COOP-1021 Co-Op Educ. Employment Prep 1 This workshop will provide an overview of the Co-operative Education consultants and students' roles and responsibilities as well as the Co-operative Education Policy. It will provide students with employment preparatory skills specifically related to co-operative education work assignments and will prepare students for their work term. MATH-7004 Statistics & Quality Assurance 2.5 This course introduces correlation, regression, probability and probability distributions, statistical inference (with confidence intervals and significance tests). This course will use Excel and the Excel Stats ToolPak for graphical and numerical analysis.
BIOL-7004 Genetics 3 In this course, students examine the genetic basis of life including Mendelian and non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance, meiosis and homologous recombination theory and their role as a molecular tool. Gene linkage, autosomal, single gene, multigene and sex-linked disorders will be investigated. Students will be introduced to the role of transcription factors/transcription factor complexes, regulatory elements, epigenetics, micro RNAs and their relationship to the genes they regulate. The structural changes in the DNA associated with these genetic activities will be explored. Prokaryotic and viral genetics and the application of their genes and regulation of their genes as applied to molecular biology will be studied. PHYS-7003 Radiation Physics 4 This course covers the basic topics of radiation physics. The concepts relating to ionizing and non-ionizing are examined in detail. Those phenomena which are common over wide expanses of the electromagnetic spectrum - namely reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization are studied. X-rays and gamma rays are examined as examples of penetrating, ionizing forms of energy. Radioisotope techniques for biological labeling and the role of lasers in flow cytometry are also examined. MATH-7003 Mathematics 2 2.5 The course is a continuation of the study of calculus developed in Mathematics I. After a brief review of differentiation techniques, this course examines the derivatives of transcendental functions including trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic forms. The second unit deals with the integrals of these functions and several techniques of integration including integration by simple substitution integration by parts, trigonometric substitution and partial fractions. The course ends with an introduction to the solution of first-order ordinary differential equations using separation of variables and use of the integrating factor. Throughout the course, students will be exposed to problem solving techniques including applications taken from the biosciences. CHEM-7005 Organic Chemistry 1 3 This course introduces the students to a basic knowledge of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons. This includes their nomenclature, physical properties, synthesis and characteristic chemical reactions. The laboratory work will emphasize the proper techniques of extraction, isolation, purification, identification and synthesis of simple organic compounds, as well as their synthesis and determination of their characteristic chemical reactions. COMP-7003 Advanced Computer Applications 3 This course builds on the previous mathematics and computer courses to permit the manipulation, computation and graphic display of results arising from major experimental databases. It uses MS-Excel, MS-Access and SPSS for data management and data modeling.
CHEM-7006 Biochemistry 1 5 This introductory course in Biochemistry introduces the student to the chemical diversity including biologically active versus inactive forms of macromolecules. The significance of nucleic acids to nuclear and nucleic acid associated organelles will be addressed. The role and interaction of macromolecules in overall cellular function is studied. What constitutes an enzyme and the diversity of functional activity, classification and their relevance to specific intracellular processes is emphasized. The laboratory components reflect qualitative and/or quantitative separation, identification and characterization of macromolecules. CHEM-7007 Instrumental Chemistry Analysis 1 3.5 This course provides the student with a knowledge of concepts and techniques employed in the spectroscopic analysis of biological, chemical, environmental, forensic, medical and quality control samples. Practical experience will be provided in the operation of infrared (IR), ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS), and atomic absorption (AA) spectrometers. BIOL-7005 Microbiology 2- Industrial Applications 3.5 This Industrial Microbiology course explores the application of scientific and engineering principles as applied to the processing of materials by micro-organisms (such as bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses). In addition, this course investigates the roles of plants and animals to produce useful products. CHEM-7008 Organic Chemistry 2 3 This course builds upon the basic knowledge of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons from Organic Chemistry I. The functional groups covered in this course will be alcohols; phenols; thiols; ethers; alkyl halides; amines; aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids and their derivatives. The nomenclature, physical properties, characteristic chemical reactions and synthesis of compounds containing these functional groups will be studied.The laboratory work will emphasize the safe and proper laboratory techniques used to investigate the synthesis and characteristic properties of these functional groups.
BIOL-7006 Applied Molecular Genetics 3 An advanced course in molecular genetics placing emphasis on the extraction and analysis of DNA from cells and tissues, cloning vectors, polymerase chain reaction, manipulation of plasmids, hybridization, nucleic acid sequencing and gene expression. CHEM-7009 Instrumental Chemistry Analysis 2 3.5 This course provides students with a knowledge of the concepts and techniques employed in chromatographic separations and mass spectrometry. Practical experience is gained in the operation of gas chromatographs (GC), liquid chromatographs (LC) and mass spectrometers (MS). PHRM-7002 Pharmacology/Toxicology & Nutraceutical 3 This is a survey course in pharmacology and toxicology dealing with the fundamentals of how xenbiotics produce toxic effects in biological systems with application of underlying principles in environmental control and risk assessment. Included are aspects of dose response relationship; routes of entry of xenobiotics and their fate in the organism; mechanisms of toxic action and methods for their assessment, with emphasis on chemical sensitization reactions, teratogenicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. In addition to chemical hazards, risks of products of biotechnology will be discussed with reference to the manufacturing, marketing, advertising, labeling, and post-marketing surveillance for safety of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. COMM-7005 Research & Technical Writing 2 This is a practically oriented writing course that teaches students to prepare technical reports in the field of science and particularly biotechnology. Students will learn the basics of technical writing by preparing a variety of technical communications, both individually and in teams CHEM-7001 Biochemistry 2 3.5 This course introduces the student to biosynthesis of macromolecules, bioenergetics and oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates, lipid, protein; biochemistry of hormones with clinical and nutritional correlations. The students are given the opportunity to perform laboratories including extraction, purification, isolation and separation of proteins.
CHEM-7010 Analytical Chemistry 2 2.5 This course deals with the analysis of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids extracted from products made by biotechnology-based industrial processes. Sampling procedures and sample preparation methods are also considered, as well as the role of analytical data in industrial quality assurance and control. BIOL-7007 Applied Biotechnology 1 3.5 This course reviews basic principles of recombinant DNA technology. Seminars provide the student with detailed knowledge of recent developments in medical, agricultural, environmental and pharmaceutical aspects of biotechnology, including transgenesis, animal bioreactors, human genome analysis and DNA fingerprinting. Ethical and social aspects of recent developments in biotechnology are discussed. The student will develop familiarity with Canadian and International patent laws and their impact on biotechnology. Laboratories provide the opportunity for the student to perform DNA and RNA isolations, restriction mapping and RFLP analysis, molecular probe labelling and southern blotting. BIOL-7008 Bioinformatics 2 This course gives an introduction to the emerging scientific discipline of bioinformatics that utilizes the combined power of biology, mathematics and computers. ENGR-7001 Bioprocess Engineering 3 Bioprocess Engineering combines biotechnology training with core chemical engineering concepts to give an understanding of the application of the newest discoveries in molecular biology to large-scale production processes, and to solve problems related to industrial equipment design and operation for biological systems. SFTY-7002 Biosafety & Regulatory Affair 2 This course will ensure that students have the required knowledge to anticipate and manage risks associated with biotechnology settings. Relevant regulatory bodies, procedures and requirements are covered. COMM-7006 Thesis 3 This is an advanced, practically oriented course that teaches students to prepare an advanced technical report which may be based on her/his experience during the previous work semester or a topic of particular interest. Students submit a proposal to undertake literature-based research to support a thesis topic. Students will present a summary of their thesis to their peers. Faculty, relevant employers and other industry professionals will be involved in the mentoring and assessment of the thesis.
BIOL-7009 Applied Biotechnology 2 3.5 This is an advanced course in biotechnology providing the student with detailed knowledge in both animal and plant tissue culture. Laboratories provide opportunities to apply techniques in staining, isolation and culturing of meristems, PCR. genetic mapping, and immunological techniques among others. BIOL-7010 Bioethics 3 This is a course on the ethics, law and science of using new genetic technologies in medicineand agriculture, as well as, the current regulations governing this area both for companies and individuals. The course will also deal with topics in reproduction, end of life and human experimentation. BIOL-7011 Current Topics in Biotechnology 3 The course is designed to consolidate the students comprehension of biotechnology and written and oral communication skills. We will examine the present state of biotechnology through seminars, readings and field trips including a tour of a London-based Research Institute and Biotechnology Incubator. The field trips provide opportunities for students to apply professional communication and interpersonal skills in their interaction with industry experts and experience on site lecture sessions. ENGR-7002 Manufacturing Process Engineering 3 This course will study the development and implementation of manufacturing processes and standards as well as ensuring efficiency and quality of products with an emphasis on problem solving and design in bioprocessing. Students will have the opportunity to visit a variety of biotechnology-related manufacturing settings. BIOL-7012 Microbiology 3-Immunology & Virology 3 This course provides the students with the knowledge of immune responses of cells and tissues of the lymphoid system as a key to control of diseases, an overview in virology including the animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses, their classification; virus genome, viral replication and epidemiology.
COOP-BIO2W BIO2 Co-op Work Term 1
ENVR-7004 Environmental & World Issues 3 This course is a comprehensive study of environmental issues and their effect on various ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The global impact of these issues combined with the economic, developmental, geographical, political and cultural influences will be examined. The importance of global sustainability and international governing bodies and agencies will be stressed. COMM-7001 Introductory Communications 3 This course provides students with the communication tools and skills typically used in a science, technical, and/or business workplace. Students develop skills in technical and business writing. They conduct both primary and secondary research, as well as analyze and organize information. Students also gain skills with common workplace documents (emails, letters and reports). Students also gain an ethical understanding of the documents they produce.
COMM-7020 Professional Writing for Applied Degrees 2 This course is designed to prepare students for the writing activities they will encounter on the job or in other courses. It emphasizes the foundations of writing and communication skills and introduces research report writing. Students learn how to organize and express facts and ideas through effective writing techniques. Coursework focuses on the production of documents that may be used in industry, government, business, or academia. These documents analyze, summarize, solve problems, and/or incorporate research. Students become thoroughly grounded in grammar and mechanical accuracy, punctuation skills, objective tone, scientific/technical writing styles, proper structure/ paragraphing, source documentation, and clarity. HIST-7003 History & Philosophy of Sciences 3 In this course students will explore the history and philosophy of science from the 1600s to the present day. The early sciences of alchemy, astronomy and natural philosophy to present day theoretical physics, the discovery of DNA and the evolution of molecular biology will be examined. The relevance of conceptual and cultural themes to the history of science will be studied. Students will pursue the importance of philosophical questions related to theory evolution, testing and change. The nature of causation, laws and scientific methodologies and scientific explanations will be examined.
SFTY-7001 Occupational Health & Safety 2.5 This course is an introduction to risk assessment and management. Students learn to recognize and evaluate work place hazards and determine ways to control or alleviate these. Provincial and federal regulations and their relevance to the workplace are reviewed. Handling, storage, transport and the appropriate codes of conduct related to hazardous materials (biological and chemical) are examined.
ZOOL-7001 Animal Care & Handling 2 This course will teach students the standard procedures for animal handling and use in experiments as advised by the Canadian Council of Animal Care (CCAC). A collaborative arrangement with an existing university animal facility will allow students to experience the application of theory learned in the classroom. The use of web-based learning modules will also be integrated into this course.
ECON-7002 Macroeconomics 3 This General education course covers a broad curriculum of macroeconomics principles. In presentation of each topic, a deliberate effort will be made to demonstrate how macroeconomic conditions can directly influence the operations and decision processes of business firms. Relevant examples are offered to illustrate how knowledge of macroeconomics can be applied in business.
Careers - 2019/2020
Career OpportunitiesGraduates of this honours four-year degree program have the opportunity to pursue Post Graduate certifications and a wide variety of Masters level programs.
Employment opportunities exist in a vast number of areas associated with the Biotechnology sector. These include research and product development, laboratory management, agricultural, quality control, chemical and microbiology analysis in the food industry, fermentation chemistry, environmental remediation, alternate energy development, pharmaceutical production and sales, downstream processing of waste products, project management, forensic analysis, risk assessment and management, intellectual property manager and technical writing.
More Information - 2019/2020A Co-operative Education Program
A Four-Year Honours Degree ProgramProgram Code: BIO2
Campus Code: LC (LC - London)
15 week terms
Academic Calendars available at www.fanshawec.ca/academicdates
ContactSchool of Applied Science and Technology: 519-452-4419
This program is a four-year, eight level honours program with four months of mandatory co-op experience. This program will ready graduates for jobs in growth areas of Applied Biotechnology such as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, agriculture, bioremediation, the fermentation industry, research and development to name a few. Students will study molecular biology, physical, organic and instrumental chemistry, applied biotechnology, microbiology, virology, toxicology; and related societal, economic, ethical, legal, and environmental issues. Graduates will be skilled in the handling of microbial, plant, and animal genetic material and macromolecule analysis, small animal handling, experimental design, statistical data analysis, and bioinformatics. Throughout the program, students will apply this knowledge to regulatory affairs, quality assurance, bioethics, and biohazard management while developing interpersonal and communication expertise, and the skills necessary for life long learning.
Co-operative EducationThis four-year Honours Degree program requires completion of one mandatory co-op work term. More information about Co-operative Education can be found at www.fanshawec.ca/co-op.President: P. Devlin, CMM, MSC, CD, HBA, MSS
Senior Vice-President Academic Services: G. Lima, MA
Vice-President Student Services: M. Beaudoin, BA, MLS
Dean, Faculty of Technology: V. Coligan, BA, BEd, MBA
Chair, School of Applied Science and Technology: D. Machacek, PhD, OCT
P. S. Argall, PhD
K. Bucholz, MSc
M. Jennings, PhD
C. Ketola, PhD
D. Quesnel, PEng, PhD
S. Thyssen, PhD
J. Zhang, PhD
Within the program, breadth courses are taught by a variety of faculty with graduate credentials in Social Sciences, Humanities and Sciences.
Fanshawe College has been granted a consent by the Minister of Advanced Education and Skills Development to offer this applied degree program for a five-year term starting June 2014. The College shall ensure that all students admitted to the above-named program during the period of consent will have the opportunity to complete the program within a reasonable time frame.Learning Outcomes
The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to
1. Perform all laboratory tasks according to accepted laboratory practices.
2. Demonstrate theoretical and practical skills in molecular biology.
3. Assist in the design of good experimental and laboratory management practices and procedures.
4. Obtain a sound practical background in the interdisciplinary subjects that are the basis of Biotechnology.
5. Perform all duties in a manner that adheres to the principles of good data management.
6. Conduct all functions with a full understanding of and in adherence to relevant regulatory and ethical issues and requirements.
7. Apply procedures of bio-processing in both laboratory and industrial settings.
8. Apply strong interpersonal, analytical, and communication skills to course teamwork, assignments, and case situations.
9. Understand, value and respect the diverse social, political, cultural, and ethical context in which he or she will live and work.
10. Develop plans for lifelong learning that include strategies for ensuring professional and technological currency.