Create beautiful, more sustainable communities with this undergraduate planning and design program - 2021/2022
Create communities that work in harmony with the environment to create lasting and useful public spaces. If you see a future designing and planning vibrant landscapes that combine form and function, check out Fanshawe’s Honours Bachelor of Environmental Design and Planning program.
This one-of-a-kind program combines the theory, knowledge and techniques of landscape architecture, urban design and physical planning with training in geographic information systems, computer-aided design, visualization and presentation technologies. You’ll use industry-standard digital technologies and cutting-edge design and communication methods used in the real world of architectural and landscape design.
You'll also work on case studies and community-based projects with sustainability in mind. Through this bachelor of environmental design program, you will participate in three co-operative work placements, putting your skills to the test with real projects. In the final year of the program, you’ll solve a real, site-specific environmental design problem to showcase all of your newly developed skills.
Graduate with an environmental design and planning Honours degree
Once graduated, you’ll be able to enter the private sector with planning and GIS consultants, landscape architects and developers, or in the public sector with municipalities, conservation authorities and provincial ministries. The degree also prepares you for continued study at the graduate level.
This environmental planning degree will prepare you to leave a mark on the world around you.
The combination of technical expertise with theoretical knowledge gave me the skills I needed to enter and excel in the world of environmental design immediately after graduation, including landscape architecture, planning, and GIS. The degree also provided the opportunity to pursue a graduate degree. The novel approach to learning and the dedicated faculty at Fanshawe were vital to my success upon graduating.
Program Progression Chart:
|Year 1||Academic Term 1||Academic Term 2||Work Term 1|
|Year 2||Academic Term 3||Academic Term 4||Work Term 2|
|Year 3||Academic Term 5||Academic Term 6||Work Term 3|
|Year 4||Work Term 4||Academic Term 7||Academic Term 8|
Admission Requirements - 2021/2022
OSSD with courses from the
University (U) or University/College (M) stream WITH:
• Grade 12 English (U)
• Plus five additional Grade 12 University (U) or University/College (M) courses
• Final minimum average of 65.0% based on the highest six Grade 12 University (U) or University/College (M) courses
Mature Applicant with standing in the required courses and grades stated above
Post-Secondary Standing* (if applicable)
English Language Requirements
Applicants whose first language is not English will be required to demonstrate proficiency in English by one of the following methods:
- A Grade 12 College Stream or University Stream English credit from an Ontario Secondary School, or equivalent, depending on the program's Admission Requirements
- Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) test with a minimum score of 88 for the Internet-based test (iBT), with test results within the last two years
- International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Academic test with an overall score of 6.5 with no score less than 6.0 in in any of the four bands, with test results within the last two years
- Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) test with an overall score of 70, with test results within the last two years
- Pearson Test of English Academic (PTE) with a minimum score of 59, with test results within the last two years
- A Cambridge English Test (FCE/CAE/CPE) with an overall score on the Cambridge English Scale of 176 with no language skill less than 169, with test results within the last two years
- An English Language Evaluation (ELE) at Fanshawe College with a minimum score of 75% in all sections of the test, with test results within the last two years.
- Fanshawe College ESL4/GAP5 students: Minimum grade of 80% in ESL4/GAP5 Level 9 or 75% in ESL4/GAP5 Level 10
Recommended Academic Preparation
- Grade 11 Introduction to Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology (C) or (U)
- Grade 11 or Grade 12 Visual Arts (M)
- Grade 11 Introduction to Computer Science (U)
- Grade 12 Computer Science (U)
- Grade 11 Media Arts (M) or (O)
- Grade 11 Presentation and Speaking Skills (O)
- Grade 12 Media Arts (M)
- Any Grade 12 Geography (U) or (M)
- Any Grade 12 Mathematics (U) or (M)
- Any Grade 12 Science (U) or (M)
Applicant Selection CriteriaWhere the number of eligible applicants exceeds the available spaces in the program, the Applicant Selection Criteria will be:
- Preference for Permanent Residents of Ontario
- Receipt of Application by February 1st (After this date, Fanshawe College will consider applicants on a first-come, first-served basis until the program is full)
- Achievement in the Admission Requirements
- Achievement in Post-Secondary Studies* (if applicable)
- *Applicants currently enrolled in a university or who have previously attended university or other post-secondary institutions and are applying to transfer into the Honours Bachelor of Environmental Design and Planning program are considered on the basis of their post-secondary standing. Specifically, applicants currently enrolled in a university or who have previously attended university must maintain a minimum average of 65.0% in the last ten full credit or full credit equivalent courses in order to be considered for admission. Applicants with less than ten full credit courses must maintain a minimum average of 65.0% in all courses in order to be considered for admission. Applicants applying from a community college must have successfully completed a diploma program with an overall GPA of 2.5 in the completed program. In addition, all students applying from university or college must have completed the pre-requisite courses in English as stated in the Admission Requirements.
Honours Bachelor of Environmental Design and Planning-2021/2022
|DESG-7025||Environmental Design Fundamentals||3.5|
|Design is a creative, problem-solving process by which ideas are given physical form. In a studio setting, students will be introduced to and then explore abstractly and as drawn from history, spatial design topics such as geometry, representation, proportion, scale, space and landscape. Design thinking, seeing and expression is taught through drawing, graphic design, model-making and photography using manual and digital tools and methods.|
|PLAN-7001||Environmental Design & Planning History||3|
|The history of environmental planning and design corresponds to the history of human settlement. History is presented as an evolution of ideas, theories or concepts influencing human thought and action and manifested physically in built environments. A survey of cultural landscapes, from the Classical to the contemporary, provides students with the historical knowledge necessary to better understand, analyze and critique environmental planning and design practice and the past, present and imagined future state of our designed and planned environments.|
|This introductory course through the use of lecture and workshop/assignment will guide the student in understanding and learning how to use a geographic information system (GIS). Through lectures the structure of a GIS, data acquisition, processing, storage, display and analysis will be covered with a focus on the application of GIS to urban and rural planning. The student will work with tables, layers, data views, layout views, labeling and legends using a GIS software (ESRI ArcMap) to answer real-world questions related to environmental design and land use planning and will prepare finished and labelled maps with supporting tables or charts.|
|GRAF-7005||Design Visualization 1||3|
|Design is a creative, problem-solving process by which ideas are given physical form. In a studio setting, students will be introduced to and then explore abstractly and as drawn from history spatial design topics such as geometry, representation, proportion, scale, space and landscape. Design thinking, seeing and expression is taught through drawing, graphic design, model-making and photography using manual and digital tools and methods.|
|COOP-1021||Co-Op Educ. Employment Prep||1|
|This workshop will provide an overview of the Co-operative Education consultants and students' roles and responsibilities as well as the Co-operative Education Policy. It will provide students with employment preparatory skills specifically related to co-operative education work assignments and will prepare students for their work term.|
|Design thinking applies an iterative process to problem-solving. In a studio setting, students will learn the design process of analysis, programming, conceptualization, resolution, presentation and evaluation. Site design is taught through the application of the design process and design principles to a specific site within its larger environmental context; the idea of sustainability is introduced and used as a guide for design decisions. Project-based learning focuses on single-use site design and requires adherence to site planning policy and the application of design methods and tools learned previously and concurrently for the introductory level development, completion and communication of assignments.|
|Site planning concerns the design, organization, designation and development of a singular, identified land area within a larger planning context. In conjunction with their design and GIS learning, students consider the various ways sites may be characterized, classified, regulated and defined physically, politically and legally by municipalities and regulatory agencies. Land development is site-based so that process is considered with respect to: capability and suitability; land acquisition and valuation; infrastructure; development proposal, application, review, approval and implementation as governed by policy and regulation; and sustainability, theoretically and in practice.|
|Geographic information systems provide the environmental designer and land planner a set of software tools to analyze a site in a contextual way. In conjunction with their design and planning learning, students will use GIS to perform an inventory of the biophysical and cultural attributes of sites. Database design, data integration, project planning and cartographic design skills will be emphasized.|
|GRAF-7006||Design Visualization 2||3|
|Building on Level 1 learning and in conjunction with the environmental design studio, students will address design visualization pertaining to the exploration and presentation of specific environmental design and planning information. Manual and digital graphic communication in the form of reports, tables, diagrams, plans, sections and perspectives is learned through the use of visualization software such as Autocad. The use of digital photos for documentation, conceptualization and presentation is taught.|
|Architecture is integral to the development of human settlements. Students will consider architecture as a component of environmental design and planning, particularly urban design, through a survey of architectural theory and practice. The design of a simple structure alone and in combination will be used to demonstrate architectural design principles and styles generally and as related to urban design more specifically.|
|Environmental design requires knowledge of the dimensions and elements of physical space and how those may influence and guide ideas and action. In a studio setting, in conjunction with their planning and GIS learning, students consider the neighbourhood as a defined and associated collection of sites, place and community identified by natural and cultural dimensions and elements. Neighbourhood scale design is taught using ecological, socio-cultural and economic design principles to guide analysis and conceptualization. Project-based learning focuses on neighbourhood design with reference to historic and contemporary neighbourhood planning models and the application of computer-aided design and visualization tools learned previously and concurrently for the intermediate level development, completion and communication of assignments.|
|PLAN-7003||Neighbourhood & Community Planning||2.5|
|Neighbourhood and community denote recognized land areas; collections of sites characterized by a sense of place related to context. In conjunction with their design and GIS learning, students consider the theory and practice of community planning and design with a focus on the neighbourhood as a planning model. The natural and cultural dimensions of neighbourhood are studied in relation to planning history and design form. Suburban development is examined as an expression of planning thought and action directed at the creation of communities.|
|Geographic features can be mapped digitally using various systems such as total station devices, GPS, digital aerial photography, digital maps and remotely revised data. All of this data can be utilized in CAD or GIS applications. The student will acquire this data using a GPS and total station device as well as create data from digital aerial photography. This data will be corrected and linked to existing digital data and used in GIS to create maps.|
|COMP-7006||Design Visualization 3||2|
|Visualization tools do not change with the scale of project necessarily, however, the way they are applied and the techniques used to communicate ideas could. Students will continue to develop their visualization skills with greater emphasis on digital tools and the incorporation and communication of GIS data and analysis in support of neighbourhood design and planning. Workflow strategies relating to data sources, acquisition and management and best practices and standards to ensure compatibility and integration with the work of others are introduced and developed. Two and three dimensional communication and presentation in visual form appropriate to small groups and agencies is stressed.|
|Urban design signifies a comprehensive, systems approach to the design of urban environments with particular attention paid to the use, function, ecology, economics and aesthetics of public infrastructure and space. In a studio setting in conjunction with their planning and GIS learning, students identify urban issues for which a physical design response is conceptualized, justified and presented in relation to history, present reality and imagined future. The design of public infrastructure and space is explored in relation to urban design principles identified in urban planning and design theory, examined through analysis and demonstrated and upheld by design. Project-based learning focuses on the design of urban areas and requires adherence to planning policy, the application of GIS for analysis and computer-aided design and visualization tools learned previously and concurrently for the intermediate level development, completion and communication of assignments.|
|Human society is becoming increasingly urban; the majority of Ontarios population lives in an urban environment. In conjunction with their design and GIS learning, students consider urban planning as the rational, management of human settlement in relation to the built and natural environment. The history, present and future of urban planning will be studied through planning theory and in relation to practice with an emphasis on sustainability. The comprehensive nature of urban planning is demonstrated through the variety of city plans and their common participatory, iterative, problem-solving process requiring research, analysis, goal-setting, conceptualization, resolution, evaluation and implementation.|
|Geographic information systems are widely used as tools to inventory, analyze, and display spatial and tabular data for use in urban planning projects. In conjunction with their design and planning learning, students will devise and implement increasingly complex spatial analyses workflows to support of a series of GIS exercises appropriate to urban design and planning problems.|
|COMP-7007||Design Visualization 4||2|
|The visual communication of design requires production choices and strategies dictated by purpose and influenced by clients, consultants, agencies, review, time and budget. Workflow requirements, production and application of specific digital visualization capabilities are extended in keeping with the broader scale, scope and planning process of urban design. Visualization is explored by students through a variety of design and planning documents from maps to 3D models in accordance with project expectations and prescribed development and review processes. Leading-edge design visualization practices are reviewed, learned and emulated in the communication of design solutions to assigned problems.|
|DESG-7029||Rural & Regional Design||3.5|
|Rural and regional design applies landscape systems thinking to the political and/or physical land area outside of and encompassing cities. In a studio setting in conjunction with their planning and GIS learning, students identify rural and/or regional issues for which a physical design response is conceptualized, justified and presented in relation to history, present reality and imagined future. Environmental design is explored in relation to rural communities and/or regional systems based on ecological, cultural and economic principles identified in regional planning and design theory, examined through analysis and demonstrated and upheld by design. Project-based learning focuses on the design of rural and regional sites and areas at various scales and requires adherence to planning policy, the application of GIS for analysis and computer-aided design and visualization tools learned previously and concurrently for the intermediate/advanced level development, completion and communication of assignments.|
|PLAN-7005||Rural & Environmental Planning||2.5|
|Ontarios population is urban primarily; however, the majority of Ontarios environment is non-urban or rural. In conjunction with their design and GIS learning, students will examine four subjects of rural planning: communities, agriculture, recreation and resources. The social, economic, cultural and ecological dimensions of rural environments are studied in order to understand and suggest sustainable approaches to environmental protection, conservation, maintenance and enhancement. The contrast between urban and rural living, infrastructure and availability of services is highlighted.|
|Geographic information systems and remote sensing analysis software are widely used as tools to inventory, analyze, and display spatial and tabular data for use in rural planning projects. In conjunction with their design and planning learning, students will analyze land use patterns, vegetation, and change over time using remote sensing software and associated remotely-sensed data including aerial photography, satellite imagery, and LIDAR.|
|COMP-7008||Design Visualization 5||2|
|Building on design visualization for urban design, students turn to the rural landscape for the continued development of their design visualization skills. In conjunction with their design, planning and GIS courses large scale plans and maps to document and convey information are created. The presentation of GIS data and analysis and diagramming of ideas, principles, processes and research findings is practiced and evaluated for visual effectiveness in support of design and planning documentation and communication and as an aid to decision-making.|
|DESG-7030||Environmental Design & Provincial Policy||3.5|
|Environmental design and provincial policy considers all scales of environmental design as it is influenced and impacted directly by provincial policy. In a studio setting in conjunction with their planning and GIS learning, students conduct design case studies of sites, neighbourhoods, urban and rural places and regional landscapes in relation to provincial planning policy and decisions. The design of existing and future environments is explored and critiqued in relation to provincial planning policy and decisions and alternative designs developed and presented based on an identified ecological and cultural context. Case study focuses on design critique and the presentation of alternative designs requiring the interpretation of provincial planning policy, the application of GIS for analysis and computer-aided design and visualization tools learned previously and concurrently for the advanced level development, completion and communication of assignments.|
|PLAN-7006||Regional & Provincial Planning||2.5|
|Planning in Ontario is governed by provincial legislation. In conjunction with their design and GIS learning, students will focus on provincial planning policy and the way it has and will shape Ontarios urban and rural environments; as well, the effects of government health, transportation and environmental policy on community form and sustainability is analyzed. Ontarios regional planning system is examined by case study as a particular approach to growth management, resource development, infrastructure renewal, transportation and environmental protection.|
|Geographic information systems are software tools for organizing digital spatial data in an accessible and logical manner for site design, land use planning, and visual analysis. In conjunction with their design and planning learning, students will enhance their GIS skill set through a series of exercises that are appropriate to landscape analysis. Spatial and tabular data will be processed, stored, transformed, analyzed, and displayed for use in integrated environmental design and planning or geodesign projects.|
|COMP-7009||Design Visualization 6||2|
|Visualization tools and techniques are applied in support of integrated design, planning and GIS or geodesign projects. Strategies for workflow and software integration required to complete projects on time at an advanced level of communication are developed and implemented by students as necessitated by the growing complexity and high resolution of design work. Emphasis is on post production, refinement and achieving advanced level production and design visualization quality. Dynamic visualization techniques and tools are applied to facilitate communication of large scale design.|
|DESG-7031||World Environmental Design||3.5|
|National and international environmental design considers all scales of environmental design as it is practiced nationally and internationally. In a studio setting in conjunction with their planning and GIS learning, students conduct design case studies of environmental designs at any scale elsewhere in Canada and throughout the world. National and international environmental design projects are studied to identify and communicate similarities and differences resulting from the ecological and cultural context. Case study focuses on design understanding and interpretation and the demonstration of learning in the design of a national or international project and the application of GIS for analysis and computer-aided design and visualization tools learned previously and concurrently for the advanced level development, completion and communication of assignments|
|PLAN-7007||National & International Planning||2.5|
|Environmental design and planning is a process that may be applied to any scale of place in any jurisdiction. In conjunction with their design and GIS learning, students use a case study method to consider environmental design and planning practice throughout Canada and internationally. Design and planning context is examined through historical research. Existing and proposed design and planning models are applied and evaluated in relation to identified and analyzed environmental problems.|
|Geographic information systems are a foundational technology for use in an integrated geodesign project. In conjunction with their design and planning learning, students will use a GIS to measure and analyze the affect of proposed environmental design and planning interventions on landscapes and human-environment interaction. GIS will be used to conceptualize, analyze, and evaluate an environmental context to inform design solutions. Stakeholder participation and collaboration in a design process will be enhanced with the use of GIS.|
|COMP-7010||Design Visualization 7||2|
|Professional quality design visualization is undertaken in support of integrated design, planning and GIS or geodesign projects in a national or international setting. Post production for dynamic design visualization is emphasized. Achievement of state-of-the-art production is established as a minimum bench mark and is pursued by researching, identifying, acquiring and synthesizing new skills as justified by stated project requirements. The focus is on achieving an integrated, professional standard workflow using design visualization tools and techniques creatively and effectively to communicate ideas and information as required.|
|BUSI-7001||Business & Professional Practice||3|
|This course guides the student through an exploration of professional and business ethics, intellectual property and employment law. In addition, students will be introduced to organizational structures, project management, and business planning. Students will apply research and writing skills gained in previous communication courses to complete and present various projects including a business plan.|
|DESG-7032||Capstone Integrated Project||20|
|The Capstone term is a synthesis course requiring program learning to be integrated and demonstrated coherently and professionally as a Capstone Project. The Capstone Project is a comprehensive study instigated by a research question/problem/opportunity pertaining to the physical environment at the scale of a site, neighbourhood, city or region. It is a study for which the solution or response is an environmental design. Students complete the project through directed and self-directed research, analysis, conceptualization, resolution and presentation necessitating the application of design, planning and GIS knowledge and methods and the use of design visualization tools and techniques for project development, completion and communication at a professional level.|
|COOP-BED1W||BED1 Co-op Work Term||1|
|COMM-7020||Professional Writing for Applied Degrees||2|
|This course is designed to prepare students for the writing activities they will encounter on the job or in other courses. It emphasizes the foundations of writing and communication skills and introduces research report writing. Students learn how to organize and express facts and ideas through effective writing techniques. Coursework focuses on the production of documents that may be used in industry, government, business, or academia. These documents analyze, summarize, solve problems, and/or incorporate research. Students become thoroughly grounded in grammar and mechanical accuracy, punctuation skills, objective tone, scientific/technical writing styles, proper structure/ paragraphing, source documentation, and clarity.|
|This 2-part course will cover the basics of statistics and an overview of statistical analysis models and examples for geographical purposes. In the first part the collection, analysis and transformation of data into information as well as descriptive and inferential statistics and probability theory are covered. In the second part central tendencies and dispersion in point patterns, shape, pattern, spatial relationships and spatial distributions are studied. Actual case studies will be used to demonstrate areas of application.|
|In this four-part course, students study the gathering, collating, statistical analysis and technical presentation of population data, population trends and phenomena in relation to their social setting and computer-based demographic profiling tools. These skills are applied to case study situations.|
|Macroeconomics is the study of economy wide phenomena including inflation, unemployment and economic growth. This course will explain the how these major economic forces impact the economy through analysis and application of concepts such as gross domestic product; cost of living calculations; unemployment; economic growth theories; Canada's banking system; aggregate demand and supply and government domestic and international policy strategies (monetary policy, fiscal policy and international policy). The student will apply these macroeconomic concepts to describe historical and current Canadian performance in both a domestic and international context.|
|Ecological features and functions of the natural environment are studied such as wetlands, woodlands and habitats for endangered species. Natural and cultural processes and events such as flooding, storm water management, erosion, shoreline movement and slope stability are discussed. A local and Provincial Government resource agencies context is provided focusing on respective roles and responsibilities.|
|This readings-based course explores the evolution and intersection of print culture/media and electronic culture/media. It introduces students to the analysis of (written, visual, spoken, bodily, electronic, etc.) texts in historical perspective. Specific attention will be given to contemporary media contexts, including the impact of digital media on culture and education, the reshaping of text, document, and literacy with technological change, the relationship between verbal and visual media representations, and the struggles over the concepts and legalities of copyright and authorship at a time when the traditional roles of the creator, publisher, text, user, and distributor have become blurred.|
|This course introduces students to psychological principles that affect the relationship between humans and the environment. Theoretical issues and applications are explored.|
Careers - 2021/2022
Dynamic careers exist in environmental design and planning in both the private and public sectors including: urban design, planning, landscape architecture and geographic information systems/science.
More Information - 2021/2022
A Four-Year Honours Degree Program
Campus Code: LC (LC - London)
15 week terms
Academic Calendars available at www.fanshawec.ca/academicdates
ContactSchool of Design: 519-452-4227
The Honours Bachelor of
Environmental Design and Planning offers integrated learning based
on the theory and practice of landscape architecture, planning and
urban design. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for
contextual analysis and evaluation and computer-aided design for
visualization is emphasized and taught. The program has artistic
and scientific appeal. Students gain a comprehensive understanding
of environmental design and planning complemented by advanced
technical design and communication skills. They use those skills
and associated knowledge to creatively and effectively explore,
analyze, conceptualize and present design and planning problems,
opportunities, ideas and solutions. Sustainability is a principle
for action - a comprehensive design and planning goal related to
ecological, economic, socio-cultural and aesthetic dimensions of a
place. It is advocated and upheld through applied project and
Academic projects, four work terms and a compulsory co-op placement give students the chance to apply their integrated learning and gain valuable practical experience. An academic exchange through a university in Curitiba, Brazil is available to senior students. Graduates are ready and able to work professionally in both the private and public sectors on contemporary design and planning projects requiring interdisciplinary solutions. Alternatively, an Honours Bachelor of Environmental Design and Planning Degree qualifies students for graduate studies in allied fields such as architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, planning, geographic information systems/science and geodesign.
Co-operative EducationThis is a four-year Honours Bachelor of Environmental Design and Planning Degree that has four co-op work term opportunities with one being mandatory. More information about Co-operative Education can be found at www.fanshawec.ca/co-op.
Senior Vice-President Academic Services: G. Lima, MA
Vice-President Student Services: M. Beaudoin, BA, MLS
Dean, Faculty of Creative Industries: T. Gedies, Ed. D.
Associate Dean, School of Design: D. Morningstar, MEd
S. Bellaire, BLA, MES, OALA, CSLA
B. Billings, BES, MPA, RPP, MCIP
M. Healy, BA (Honours), MA
R. Oskirko, BASc, PhD, PEng
E. Paddle, BFA, MLA, PhD
W. Pol, BAA, MPA, RPP, MCIP
S. Stephenson, BLA, MBA, PhD
C. Wilmink, BSc, MLA, PEng
A. Wilson, BES, MLA, OALA, BCSLA, CSLA
Within the program, breadth courses are taught by a variety of faculty with graduate credentials in Social Sciences, Humanities and Sciences.
Fanshawe College has been granted a consent by the Minister of Colleges and Universities to offer this degree program for a seven-year term starting September 2020. The College shall ensure that all students admitted to the above-named program during the period of consent will have the opportunity to complete the program within a reasonable time frame.
The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to:
1. Identify the varied nature and characteristics of sites, neighbourhoods, communities and regions.
2. Investigate and analyse complex environmental planning and design problems.
3. Conceptualize and propose solutions to environmental planning and design problems.
4. Evaluate proposed solutions to environmental planning and design problems/opportunities.
5. Participate in the full range of environmental planning and design activities such as land development and municipal planning.
6. Facilitate participatory environmental planning and design activities such as public meetings and workshops.
7. Apply planning and design principles in general, and more specifically those related to sustainability, ecology and environmental aesthetics, to the planning and design of the built and natural environment.
8. Apply contemporary digital technologies such as geographic information systems and computer-aided design to the investigation, analysis and communication of environmental design problems/opportunities and the presentation of design solutions.
9. Create professional quality written and graphic documentation such as reports, plans and presentations.
10. Communicate effectively using various digital media such as computer-aided design, visualization software and geographic information systems.