Your options within the Business Diploma at Fanshawe are limitless - 2021/2022
In this business diploma program, you will explore accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, operations and supply chain management, small business and project management. You will study and collaborate with future colleagues, networking with experienced professors. Your concepts of leadership, whether with a small business, in entry-level management, in the not-for-profit sector, or within corporations, will be nurtured and challenged. You will examine real case studies as you earn your diploma in business and develop real business skills. Available in a traditional in-class format with September, January, February and May admissions or 100% online.
Complete online business courses
If you are thinking about completing your diploma online you can assess your readiness with www.amiready.ca, Fanshawe's Online Readiness Indicator, a measure of the degree to which distance learning and/or learning in a technology rich environment is the right fit for you. We also have a handy checklist to guide you along the way to take online business courses.
Diploma of business options
There are options to transfer to the Business Administration-Leadership and Management advanced diploma or the Honours Bachelor of Commerce (Management) degree at Fanshawe. Further details about pathways are available here. You can also be eligible to complete a degree program at many other post-secondary institutions or complement your diploma with a graduate certificate offered at Fanshawe College.
Admission Requirements - 2021/2022
Admission RequirementsOSSD with courses from the College (C), University (U),
University/College (M), or Open (O) stream WITH:
- Any Grade 12 English (C) or (U)
- Mathematics* ONE OF:
- Any Grade 12 Mathematics (C) or (U)
- Any Grade 11 Mathematics (C), (U), or (M)
(Note: a minimum final grade of 60 required for any Grade 11 Mathematics course)
Academic and Career Entrance Certificate (ACE)
Ontario High School Equivalency Certificate (GED) AND:
- Mathematics* ONE OF:
- Any Grade 12 Mathematics (C) or (U)
- Any Grade 11 Mathematics (C), (U), or (M)
(Note: a minimum final grade of 60 required for any Grade 11 Mathematics course)
Mature Applicant with standing in the required courses and grade stated above
- *Applicants who lack the required Mathematics may still gain eligibility for admission by completing appropriate prior upgrading.
English Language Requirements
Applicants whose first language is not English will be required to demonstrate proficiency in English by one of the following methods:
- A Grade 12 College Stream or University Stream English credit from an Ontario Secondary School, or equivalent, depending on the program's Admission Requirements
- Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) test with a minimum score of 79 for the Internet-based test (iBT), with test results within the last two years
- International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Academic test with an overall score of 6.0 with no score less than 5.5 in any of the four bands, with test results within the last two years. SDS Program Requirements.
- Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) test with an overall score of 60 with no score less than 50 in any of the four bands, with test results within the last two years
- Pearson Test of English Academic (PTE) with a minimum score of 53, with test results within the last two years
- A Cambridge English Test (FCE/CAE/CPE) with an overall score on the Cambridge English Scale of 169 with no language skill less than 162, with test results within the last two years
- An English Language Evaluation (ELE) at Fanshawe College with a minimum score of 70% in all sections of the test, with test results within the last two years
- Fanshawe College ESL4/GAP5 students: Minimum grade of 80% in ESL4/GAP5 Level 8, 75% in ESL4/GAP5 Level 9, or 70% in ESL4/GAP5 Level 10
Recommended Academic Preparation
- Any Grade 11 or Grade 12 Business Studies (C), (M), or (O)
- Grade 12 Business and Technological Communication (O)
- Academic and Career Entrance Certificate (ACE): Business Mathematics course and Computer Skills course
- Applicants who do not meet the stated admission requirements for the Business program should apply to the one-year Business Fundamentals Ontario College Certificate program, Program Code BFS2. The Business Fundamentals program is recommended for students who require or desire academic upgrading, particularly in Mathematics and English, before pursuing a business diploma program. Students who successfully complete the Business Fundamentals program may be eligible for admission to Level 2 of any two-year business diploma program at Fanshawe College.
Recommended Personal Preparation
- Secondary school courses related to Business.
- Applicants may apply for advanced standing on the basis of previous academic achievement at another institution and/or Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR). Advanced standing qualifies the applicant for direct entry to a second or higher level of the program.
Applicant Selection CriteriaWhere the number of eligible applicants exceeds the available spaces in the program, the Applicant Selection Criteria will be:
- Preference for Permanent Residents of Ontario
- Receipt of Application by February 1st (After this date, Fanshawe College will consider applicants on a first-come, first-served basis until the program is full)
- Achievement in the Admission Requirements
|ACCT-1100||Principles of Accounting 1||3|
|This course introduces the student to the Principles of Accounting, and includes an exploration of the underlying concepts that guide the preparation of accounts for individuals and organizations. It is designed to teach the student, regardless of program destination, an essential life skill - an understanding of Net Worth, and its importance to business success and the financial well being of the individual.|
|This course provides a review of basic arithmetic and algebra as well as providing students with mathematical tools and concepts needed for other college courses and in future employment. This course is to prepare students for later courses in Marketing, Business, Financial Planning, Accounting, Purchasing and Insurance.|
|BUSI-1060||Strategies for Success||1|
|This course presents and helps to develop some of the skills required to achieve academic and career success. Areas of focus include college resources, study skills, time management, academic integrity, emotional self-awareness and social skills development. Additionally, emphasis is placed on career readiness and preparation.|
|WRIT-1032||Reason & Writing Business 1||3|
|This course will introduce business students to essential principles of reading, writing, and reasoning at the postsecondary level. Students will identify, summarize, analyze, and evaluate multiple short readings and write persuasive response essays to develop their vocabulary, comprehension, grammar, and critical thinking.|
|MKTG-1012||Principles of Marketing 1||3|
|This course is designed to provide an overview of the decisions that face Marketers in today's fast-paced and competitive business environment. Students will learn that marketing is not only advertising but a broad set of activities designed to satisfy consumer needs and wants. Students examine the information Marketers require for effective decision-making and learn the basic elements of the marketing planning process.|
|BUSI-1005||Introduction to Business Processes||3|
|This course explores the various functional areas of business in Canada and demonstrates the interrelationship among these areas. Students are introduced to many concepts, including major business trends, the role of government in business, marketing, operations, employee-management issues, financial resources management, business ethics and social responsibility.|
|COMP-3077||Excel for Business Adv||3|
|Modern spreadsheet programs perform far beyond simple number crunching. The functionality of Microsoft Excel continues to move the application into new venues such as visual interactive data presentations or sales proposals. Given the now commonplace nature of the program, it is crucial that all business minded professionals have a comprehensive knowledge of MS Excel. Upon successful completion of this curriculum, students will be trained in MS Excel 2016 for MOS (Microsoft Office Specialist) expert level Excel certification. MOS testing is available at certified testing centers across Canada.|
|This course explains the time value of money calculations used in Mathematics of Finance. It covers topics such as simple interest, compound interest, annuities-simple and general, bonds and cost-benefit analysis.|
|This course covers the concepts and skills needed to provide exceptional service to consumers in the both for-profit and not-for-profit businesses and emphasizes how to develop skills in order to establish and maintain long-term customer relationships within various industry sectors. Emphasis is placed on using case studies in order to learn how to project a customer-friendly image, how to handle demanding customers and most importantly how to appreciate cultural differences in customer service expectations.|
|Economics I is an introductory microeconomics course which covers a broad curriculum of microeconomic principles. Students will study the foundations of economic choice, market pricing, consumer behaviour, business decision making, market structure and policy development in a small open economy like Canada.|
|MGMT-1209||Corporate Social Responsibility & Ethics||3|
|This course reviews the concepts and principles of several traditional ethics frameworks and applies these principles to the practices of business. Students are asked to examine their own ethical principles and consider how these principles translate to business. Ethical guidelines are utilized to review and analyze business dilemmas. Emphasis is placed on the application of these guidelines with a primary focus on challenging students to investigate and resolve problems and ethical dilemmas that they may face in their business or professional lives. Students are encouraged to use different strategies to make decisions and solve problems related to ethical dilemmas.|
|This course provides an understanding of statistical and data analysis techniques and develops students' skills in organizing and summarizing information. Statistical methods in relation to data collection, analysis, presentation and interpretation of quantitative data are presented. Topics of discussion also include summary measures, probability, normal probability distributions, sample data and sampling distributions, and hypothesis testing. Students will further develop their skills with spreadsheet software.|
|FINA-1031||Financial Management Applications||3|
|The purpose of this course is to give students an opportunity to understand and use the financial statements and reports of incorporated small businesses, namely the Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Statement of Cash Flows. Students are also introduced to Pro Forma Statements, Cash Budgets and ways to develop these tools. Students will perform ratio and trend analysis, prepare projections and improve their skills in the management of small business financial affairs.|
|This course develops students' literacy and professional communication skills. Students focus on current business issues and convey relevant meaning in oral and written format. The main themes of the course include writing reports and other relevant business documents (e.g. letters, short reports); communicating in groups and meetings; awareness of intercultural communication and diverse audiences; the job search (including resumes and cover letters); business; business rhetoric in speaking and writing; summarizing and evaluating current business-related readings; delivering presentations; researching and documenting reports using APA format; and self-editing skills.|
|Organizational behaviour (OB) theories and concepts are applicable to various work settings-private, public, for-profit, and not-for-profit. This course investigates how individuals, groups, and structures influence and are, in turn, influenced by behaviours in organizations. Discussion will focus on topics that include: history of OB; evolution of organizational structure, design and culture; work place productivity, employee skills and technology demands; conflict resolution; interpersonal skills; legislation related to workplace discrimination and harassment; leadership; and management of change, power, and organizational politics.|
|This is an introductory macroeconomics course. Students will study measures of macroeconomic activity, growth in the economy and the government's role in stabilizing the economy.|
|MGMT-3005||Strategic HR Management||3|
|This course will emphasize the importance of human resource management from a strategic perspective by providing students with an overview of the issues, functions and responsibilities of today's HR professional. Students will gain the ability to analyze and develop HR practices and policies that include planning, recruiting, selecting, training, motivating, rewarding, evaluating and providing feedback. Such activities enable today's HR professionals to create and maintain highly effective, efficient and empowered organizations.|
|BUSI-1070||Small Business Ownership||3|
|In BUSI 1070, the major project consists of constructing a business plan for a new enterprise. The student is expected to understand and apply the concepts learned from previous courses. The project requires the student to integrate core topics such as small business finance, marketing and operations. Additional course material explores alternatives to starting a business such as buying an existing business or franchise and/or taking over the family business.|
|ACCT-1011||Principles of Accounting 2||5|
|This course is a continuation of the study of Financial Accounting at an introductory level. Students will cover additional material related to: - Asset, liability, and owners'/shareholders' equity, revenue and expense accounts - Accounting for partnerships and corporations - Analysis of financial statements, including balance sheet and income statement - Retained earnings and cash flow|
|This course is an introduction to Canadian Business Law with an emphasis on the law in Ontario and its practical application in business and accounting environments. A mobile computing course (laptop) integrates technology; the students will utilize electronic resources and acquire the ability to identify and respond appropriately to relevant legal situations. Course content includes the constitution and court system, torts, professional liability, contracts, property, security interests and business formations.|
|MKTG-5009||Sales, Marketing & Digital Channels||3|
|This course develops the students' understanding of the intersection between sales and marketing in both the brick-and-mortar and digital worlds. Exposure to online marketing tactics and mobile communications will increase student's digital literacy. Students will learn to identify their clients'/customers' needs, speak to those needs, and select solutions that add the most value to their clients/customers, irrespective of the channel in which they operate. At the end of the course students will be able to seamlessly integrate tactics across channels, operating in the omni-channel universe.|
|Project management is about meeting unique challenges. Project management involves understanding and managing the relationships between people and events, and the scarce resources of time and money. This course will provide practical theories for the successful development, implementation and evaluation of projects and events to meet the strategic and operational goals/objectives of a business. Students will be introduced to a variety of principles, practices, tools and resources to manage workplace projects personal projects and events.|
|Organizations and individuals need to be innovative to succeed in the complex and rapidly-changing global marketplace. In this course you will learn the fundamentals of innovation and how innovation applies to your discipline or field.Using this foundational knowledge, you will apply the novel and adaptive thinking processes and tools presented in the course to complete an innovative learning project in collaboration with other students.The project will be based on a real-world scenario with a defined scope as chosen by your professor. The project may involve external live clients and a multi-disciplinary approach.Throughout the course, novel and adaptive thinking skills as well as collaboration skills will be evaluated through self assessment.This course is designed to give students in certificate and diploma programs a foundation in innovative thinking.|
|ACCT-1068||Introduction to Payroll||3|
|Students will learn the basics of payroll practices and procedures, including an overview of the payroll function, employment standards, earnings, taxable benefits, pension plans, employment insurance, taxation, calculating net pay, and all current periodic/annual reporting requirements. Excel software will be used throughout the course.|
|QuickBooks is designed for the small to midsized business owner. Learn how this program can make it a snap to set up a chart of accounts, create and print invoices, receipts, and statements, track your receivables, payables, and inventory, and generate reports.|
|BUSI-1068||Effective Meetings & Presentations||3|
|This course covers the concepts, skills, and techniques for running effective business meetings and makingeffective presentations. Course material covered is applicable to all business sectors and audiences of all types and sizes. Emphasis is placed on learning appropriate strategies and multi-media techniques and applying them toindividual and group work assignments with business and non-business topics. Students learn to effectively incorporate computer applications like PowerPoint and digital media tools into business meetings and presentations. Students develop life-long strategies for dealing with presentation anxiety and stress.|
|BUSI-1071||The Business of Real Estate||3|
|Famous real estate investor Louis Glickman once said that the best investment on earth is earth. The accuracy of this statement has been proven time and time again, especially in the Canadian real estate market. In an industry ripe with opportunity, guidance from educated professionals through the intricate processes of buying and selling real estate is crucial. A licensed real estate sales representative or licensed Realtor® provides such guidance for the purpose of facilitating real estate transactions. In this course, in addition to acquiring wide-ranging knowledge of the real estate industry in Ontario, students will examine the marketing skillsets (digital and traditional), personalities, and lifestyles typical of the most successful real estate sales representatives. Details will also be provided concerning the requirements involved in becoming a licensed real estate sales representative and how money is earned in this profession. Real world and real time case material involving active real estate salespeople in today's market will be ever-present in the course materials. Such curricula will be used to demonstrate to students that, for the right type of person, commission sales in real estate can be an extremely rewarding career choice that may also provide exclusive exposure to select real estate investment opportunities. However, even for students who might find that selling real estate as a career choice is not a good match, the general knowledge to be gained in this course relating to social media and web optimization, sales techniques, entrepreneurial skills, and the work/life balance could be very beneficial across a variety of professions.|
|BUSI-1092||The Greening of Business||3|
|This course is designed to provide an overview of the decisions that businesses face in today's fast-paced and competitive business environment. Students will learn that greening business is not only a marketing strategy but a broad set of decisions designed to prepare business for sustainable solutions, cost savings and consumer demand. Students begin by examining reasons to Green Your Business, the market for Green, the benefits of greening business, and ultimately the path to greening a business. Students will then study specific greening opportunities within a business and round out the course with develop of a Green Business Proposal.|
|Critical Thinking is the general term given to a wide range of cognitive skills needed to evaluate arguments and truth claims, discover and overcome personal prejudices and biases, formulate and present convincing reasons in support of conclusions and make reasonable, intelligent decisions about what to think and what to do. The general purpose of this course is to assist you in developing these intellectual skills and dispositions, in order to apply the reasoning process to various fields such as business, science, social science and ethics.|
|BUSI-3013||Small Business Entrepreneurship||3|
|Should you become a small business owner? Want to know how small business can compete effectively in today's marketplace? Examine the business environment and the risks and rewards of ownership by participating in panel discussions and interviews with successful small business owners, plus explore ideas that can make your small business more competitive. You get the benefit of years of experience and new insights for success.|
|BUSI-3014||Small Business Simulation||3|
|Students will apply the business knowledge they have gained throughout the first three semesters of the curriculum in a (computerized) simulated business environment to test their knowledge and abilities as a business owner/manager. Working initially individually, then moving into teams, students will use business information to plan, execute and analyze strategies to achieve business success.|
|BUSI-3022||Foreign Exchange Peer Project||2|
|Fanshawe students studying at HZ University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands on the one semester student exchange program may select the Peer Project, an HZ course designed to bring together students of all nationalities to foster understanding and cooperation.|
|BUSI-3023||Foreign Exchange Language Studies||3|
|Fanshawe students studying at HZ University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands on the one semester student exchange program may select a foreign language elective offered by the university.|
|This is an introductory course on international business. It will provide a basic overview of how international business differs from domestic business. The course will explain the factors that companies consider when evaluating opportunities to expand their businesses beyond domestic markets. Upon completion of the course, students will be able to compare and contrast how domestic businesses and international businesses organize themselves to optimize their limited resources.|
|COMP-1413||Adobe Suite for Business||3|
|The requirement for new business graduates to possess robust skills in three categories of graphic application is becoming an industry standard. Employers hiring for a variety of marketing positions are often looking for prospects that can do all of the following: use Adobe Photoshop for digital image editing, use Adobe Illustrator for digital illustration, and use Adobe InDesign for digital desktop publishing. This course provides students with real-world instruction and application of practical and common skills associated with the Big 3 Adobe design applications: Photoshop, Illustrator, and InDesign. Common internet platforms such as e-newsletters, blogs and wikis are also used in this course to demonstrate their purpose and function in the business world in the areas of digital publishing and web communication. Overall, using the three aforementioned Adobe applications and the World Wide Web, students will be introduced to a variety of professional design concepts and principles in a format that everyday business and marketing professionals can understand.|
|FDMG-1039||Dining for Professional Success||3|
|Enjoy the tastes, sounds and aromas as you dine each week. This exploration of culture and customs in various national dining practices is designed to create an awareness of and develop sensitivity to different cultural behaviors and customs, especially for students traveling outside their own country or who will be dealing with people of other countries or cultures. Students will explore the influence of culture, religion, geography and history on dining practices around the world.|
|A general education course developed to provide students with the fundamental financial life skills so that they can make educated financial management decisions over the course of their lifetime. The emphasis is on those financial life skills that are of particular relevance in the early stages of the financial management life cycle.|
|Designed to provide students with an understanding of the objectives, principles and administration of income taxation in Canada, this course covers employment, business, property, capital gains, other income, deductions,tax credits and the calculation of taxes payable for individual residents in Canada. Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to prepare personal income tax returns using commercial software.|
|INSR-1001||Fundamentals of Insurance||4|
|The objective of this course is to introduce students to the principles and practice of insurance by showing the multi-faceted nature of the insurance business, dealing with risk and how insurance responds to it, looking briefly at some of the law that deals with insurance, introducing many of the terms and practices commonly encountered in the business, and outlining the basic policy coverages for automobile and property insurance.|
|In this course students will have a clear understanding of the management skills needed by first line supervisors and small business owners with employees. Topics include: staffing, performance management, current workplace legislation, orientation and training, conflict, diversity, termination, and personal development of supervisory skills.|
|MGMT-3058||Retail Management & e-Commerce||3|
|Almost 60% of the Canadian economy involves consumer spending. That makes retail management an integral part of the Canadian economy. This course focuses on decision making tools for developing retail strategy, planning merchandise, and building customer loyalty. With an ever increasing number of retailers devoting resources to attracting customers online we will spend time exploring e-commerce.|
|MKTG-1028||Secondary Market Research||3|
|This course provides an introduction to marketing research. It focuses on the collection, analysis and reporting of secondary data (data that has already been published) for planning, evaluating and improving marketing programs. Secondary data is used to answer questions about the size and segmentation of markets, competitor strategies, media effectiveness and changing customer needs. Students will be introduced to paper-based, database and Internet sources of marketing data and information and will complete a research project.|
|MKTG-1054||Principles of Advertising & Branding||3|
|This course examines the role of advertising media and promotions in Marketing and explores the concept of integrated marketing communications. Students are provided with an overview of advertising and branding and its role in modern marketing. Students will explore various ways of delivering messages to a target audience.|
|MKTG-1093||Sports, Entertainment & Event Marketing||3|
|This course exposes students to the growing field of sports and entertainment marketing with a focus on the theory and practice. This course explores the planning and marketing of sports, entertainment and events. Students learn about the planning, promotion and evaluation of special events within these specific industries. While focusing on the practical application of theory, students will study topics such as sport/event branding, athletes and/or performers, sports/entertainment organizations and special events and sponsorship.|
|The Digital Marketing course will give students an introductory exposure to current social media and digital marketing trends.|
Careers - 2021/2022
Career OpportunitiesGraduates of the Business program are prepared to enter the business world on a management career path in large and small businesses, industry, the not-for-profit sector and government. Graduates are also suited to a variety of entry-level positions, including management trainee, store supervisor, office supervisor, operations supervisor and production supervisor. Graduates may also choose to launch and manage their own small business.
More Information - 2021/2022
Offered as a Weekday Program and as an Online Program
Campus Code: LC (LC - London)
15 week terms
Academic Calendars available at www.fanshawec.ca/academicdates
Lawrence Kinlin School of Business: 519-452-4290
Program Code: BUS1
Campus Code: LCL (LCL - London-Online)
15 week terms
Academic Calendars available at www.fanshawec.ca/academicdates
Lawrence Kinlin School of Business: 519-452-4290
Program DescriptionBusiness is a two-year Ontario College Diploma program. This program is designed for students with an interest in all aspects of business. Students gain an understanding of all various business areas including accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, supply chain management, small business, and project management. Ethical and sustainable business practices are considered, and students are encouraged to explore individual areas of business that are of greater interest. Students are given a wide exposure to business that meets the needs of those who desire a career in business management whether in a large organization or a family business. Students can also earn education credits toward the Certified in Management (CIM) designation from the Canadian Institute of Management. Graduates who meet admission requirements are eligible for transfer to the Business Administration - Leadership and Management Advanced Diploma or the Honours Bachelor of Commerce (Management) Degree program.
- The Business program shares a common first level with all business diploma programs in the Lawrence Kinlin School of Business which allows for program transfer, with no loss of credit, after Level 1.
- Applicants applying to the Online version of the program should select Campus Code LCL(LCL - London-Online).
- Applicants applying to the Online version of the program should ensure they have appropriate technological capacity to complete the program, including access to a computer, required software and internet access for each course in the program.
- Students entering the first level of the program in January, February or May will proceed to Level 2 of the program in September, unless student initiates Level 2 for the summer term.
- Many of the courses contained in the Business Ontario College Diploma program qualify as credits towards other diploma programs (i.e., Business - Marketing, Business - Accounting, Business - Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Business - Insurance, Business - Human Resources, and Business - Finance), enabling students to earn a second diploma.
- Many courses in the program carry exemption credits towards
designations with professional bodies, including:
Canadian Institute of Management (CIM)
Canadian Institute of Entrepreneurship (CE)
Canadian Institute of Bookkeeping (CB)
Certified General Accountants Association (CGA)
Canadian Institute of Financial Planners (CFP)
Human Resources Professional Association (CHRP)
Insurance Institute of Canada (CIP)
- Graduates may be eligible for admission to the Business Administration - Leadership and Management Advanced Diploma program.
- Graduates may be eligible for admission to the following Graduate Certificate programs in the Lawrence Kinlin School of Business: Agri-Business Management, Human Resources Management, International Business Management, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Marketing Management, Operations Management, Professional Financial Services, or Project Management. Graduate Certificate programs deliver a specialized professional curriculum in two four-month levels.
- This program is eligible for consideration of college to college transfer of credits under the Ontario Provincial ONCAT agreement.
- Students in the Lawrence Kinlin School of Business in Business (BUS1) or Business (Co-op) (BUS2) program can visit the Business Program Homepage on Fanshawe Online for instruction on how to select their Business Electives.
Applicants seeking a Co-op Endorsed Diploma should apply to the Business (Co-op) program, Program Code BUS2.
The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to:
1. identify and discuss the impact of global issues on an organization’s business opportunities by using an environmental scan*.
2. apply principles of corporate sustainability*, corporate social responsibility and ethics to support an organization’s business initiatives.
3. use current concepts/systems and technologies to support an organization's business initiatives.
4. apply basic research skills to support business decision making.
5. support the planning, implementation and monitoring of projects.
6. perform work in compliance with relevant statutes, regulations and business practices.
7. explain the role of the human resource function and its impact on an organization.
8. use accounting and financial principles to support the operations of an organization.
9. describe and apply marketing and sales concepts used to support the operations of an organization.
10. outline principles of supply chain* management and operations management.
11. outline and assess the components of a business plan.
12. develop strategies for ongoing personal and professional development to enhance work performance in the business field.